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基于 Promise 的 HTTP 异步请求库axios

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axios基于 Promise 的 HTTP 异步请求库,可同时在浏览器和 node.js 中使用

基于 Promise 的 HTTP 异步请求库axios

功能特性
在浏览器中发送 XMLHttpRequests 请求
在 node.js 中发送 http请求
支持 Promise API
拦截请求和响应
转换请求和响应数据
自动转换 JSON 数据
客户端支持保护安全免受 XSRF 攻击


Installing

Using npm:

$ npm install axios

Using bower:

$ bower install axios

Using cdn:

<script src="https://unpkg.com/axios/dist/axios.min.js"></script>

Example

Performing a GET request

// Make a request for a user with a given ID axios.get('/user?ID=12345')
  .then(function (response) { console.log(response);
  })
  .catch(function (error) { console.log(error);
  }); // Optionally the request above could also be done as axios.get('/user', {
    params: { ID: 12345 }
  })
  .then(function (response) { console.log(response);
  })
  .catch(function (error) { console.log(error);
  });

Performing a POST request

axios.post('/user', {
    firstName: 'Fred',
    lastName: 'Flintstone' })
  .then(function (response) { console.log(response);
  })
  .catch(function (error) { console.log(error);
  });

Performing multiple concurrent requests

function getUserAccount() { return axios.get('/user/12345');
} function getUserPermissions() { return axios.get('/user/12345/permissions');
} axios.all([getUserAccount(), getUserPermissions()])
  .then(axios.spread(function (acct, perms) { // Both requests are now complete }));

axios API

Requests can be made by passing the relevant config to axios.

axios(config)
// Send a POST request axios({
  method: 'post',
  url: '/user/12345',
  data: {
    firstName: 'Fred',
    lastName: 'Flintstone' }
});
// GET request for remote image axios({
  method:'get',
  url:'http://bit.ly/2mTM3nY',
  responseType:'stream' })
  .then(function(response) { response.data.pipe(fs.createWriteStream('ada_lovelace.jpg'))
});
axios(url[, config])
// Send a GET request (default method) axios('/user/12345');

Request method aliases

For convenience aliases have been provided for all supported request methods.

axios.request(config)
axios.get(url[, config])
axios.delete(url[, config])
axios.head(url[, config])
axios.options(url[, config])
axios.post(url[, data[, config]])
axios.put(url[, data[, config]])
axios.patch(url[, data[, config]])
NOTE

When using the alias methods url, method, and data properties don't need to be specified in config.

Concurrency

Helper functions for dealing with concurrent requests.

axios.all(iterable)
axios.spread(callback)

Creating an instance

You can create a new instance of axios with a custom config.

axios.create([config])
var instance = axios.create({
  baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/',
  timeout: 1000,
  headers: {'X-Custom-Header': 'foobar'}
});

Instance methods

The available instance methods are listed below. The specified config will be merged with the instance config.

axios#request(config)
axios#get(url[, config])
axios#delete(url[, config])
axios#head(url[, config])
axios#options(url[, config])
axios#post(url[, data[, config]])
axios#put(url[, data[, config]])
axios#patch(url[, data[, config]])

Request Config

These are the available config options for making requests. Only the url is required. Requests will default to GET if method is not specified.

{ // `url` is the server URL that will be used for the request url: '/user', // `method` is the request method to be used when making the request method: 'get', // default // `baseURL` will be prepended to `url` unless `url` is absolute. // It can be convenient to set `baseURL` for an instance of axios to pass relative URLs // to methods of that instance. baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/', // `transformRequest` allows changes to the request data before it is sent to the server // This is only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', and 'PATCH' // The last function in the array must return a string or an instance of Buffer, ArrayBuffer, // FormData or Stream transformRequest: [function (data) { // Do whatever you want to transform the data return data;
  }], // `transformResponse` allows changes to the response data to be made before // it is passed to then/catch transformResponse: [function (data) { // Do whatever you want to transform the data return data;
  }], // `headers` are custom headers to be sent headers: {'X-Requested-With': 'XMLHttpRequest'}, // `params` are the URL parameters to be sent with the request // Must be a plain object or a URLSearchParams object params: { ID: 12345 }, // `paramsSerializer` is an optional function in charge of serializing `params` // (e.g. https://www.npmjs.com/package/qs, http://api.jquery.com/jquery.param/) paramsSerializer: function(params) { return Qs.stringify(params, {arrayFormat: 'brackets'})
  }, // `data` is the data to be sent as the request body // Only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', and 'PATCH' // When no `transformRequest` is set, must be of one of the following types: // - string, plain object, ArrayBuffer, ArrayBufferView, URLSearchParams // - Browser only: FormData, File, Blob // - Node only: Stream, Buffer data: {
    firstName: 'Fred' }, // `timeout` specifies the number of milliseconds before the request times out. // If the request takes longer than `timeout`, the request will be aborted. timeout: 1000, // `withCredentials` indicates whether or not cross-site Access-Control requests // should be made using credentials withCredentials: false, // default // `adapter` allows custom handling of requests which makes testing easier. // Return a promise and supply a valid response (see lib/adapters/README.md). adapter: function (config) { /* ... */ }, // `auth` indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used, and supplies credentials. // This will set an `Authorization` header, overwriting any existing // `Authorization` custom headers you have set using `headers`. auth: {
    username: 'janedoe',
    password: 's00pers3cret' }, // `responseType` indicates the type of data that the server will respond with // options are 'arraybuffer', 'blob', 'document', 'json', 'text', 'stream' responseType: 'json', // default // `xsrfCookieName` is the name of the cookie to use as a value for xsrf token xsrfCookieName: 'XSRF-TOKEN', // default // `xsrfHeaderName` is the name of the http header that carries the xsrf token value xsrfHeaderName: 'X-XSRF-TOKEN', // default // `onUploadProgress` allows handling of progress events for uploads onUploadProgress: function (progressEvent) { // Do whatever you want with the native progress event }, // `onDownloadProgress` allows handling of progress events for downloads onDownloadProgress: function (progressEvent) { // Do whatever you want with the native progress event }, // `maxContentLength` defines the max size of the http response content allowed maxContentLength: 2000, // `validateStatus` defines whether to resolve or reject the promise for a given // HTTP response status code. If `validateStatus` returns `true` (or is set to `null` // or `undefined`), the promise will be resolved; otherwise, the promise will be // rejected. validateStatus: function (status) { return status >= 200 && status < 300; // default }, // `maxRedirects` defines the maximum number of redirects to follow in node.js. // If set to 0, no redirects will be followed. maxRedirects: 5, // default // `httpAgent` and `httpsAgent` define a custom agent to be used when performing http // and https requests, respectively, in node.js. This allows options to be added like // `keepAlive` that are not enabled by default. httpAgent: new http.Agent({ keepAlive: true }),
  httpsAgent: new https.Agent({ keepAlive: true }), // 'proxy' defines the hostname and port of the proxy server // `auth` indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used to connect to the proxy, and // supplies credentials. // This will set an `Proxy-Authorization` header, overwriting any existing // `Proxy-Authorization` custom headers you have set using `headers`. proxy: {
    host: '127.0.0.1',
    port: 9000,
    auth: {
      username: 'mikeymike',
      password: 'rapunz3l' }
  }, // `cancelToken` specifies a cancel token that can be used to cancel the request // (see Cancellation section below for details) cancelToken: new CancelToken(function (cancel) {
  })
}

Response Schema

The response for a request contains the following information.

{ // `data` is the response that was provided by the server data: {}, // `status` is the HTTP status code from the server response status: 200, // `statusText` is the HTTP status message from the server response statusText: 'OK', // `headers` the headers that the server responded with // All header names are lower cased headers: {}, // `config` is the config that was provided to `axios` for the request config: {}, // `request` is the request that generated this response // It is the last ClientRequest instance in node.js (in redirects) // and an XMLHttpRequest instance the browser request: {}
}

When using then, you will receive the response as follows:

axios.get('/user/12345')
  .then(function(response) { console.log(response.data); console.log(response.status); console.log(response.statusText); console.log(response.headers); console.log(response.config);
  });

When using catch, or passing a rejection callback as second parameter of then, the response will be available through the error object as explained in the Handling Errors section.

Config Defaults

You can specify config defaults that will be applied to every request.

Global axios defaults

axios.defaults.baseURL = 'https://api.example.com'; axios.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN; axios.defaults.headers.post['Content-Type'] = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded';

Custom instance defaults

// Set config defaults when creating the instance var instance = axios.create({
  baseURL: 'https://api.example.com' }); // Alter defaults after instance has been created instance.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN;

Config order of precedence

Config will be merged with an order of precedence. The order is library defaults found in lib/defaults.js, then defaults property of the instance, and finally config argument for the request. The latter will take precedence over the former. Here's an example.

// Create an instance using the config defaults provided by the library // At this point the timeout config value is `0` as is the default for the library var instance = axios.create(); // Override timeout default for the library // Now all requests will wait 2.5 seconds before timing out instance.defaults.timeout = 2500; // Override timeout for this request as it's known to take a long time instance.get('/longRequest', {
  timeout: 5000 });

Interceptors

You can intercept requests or responses before they are handled by then or catch.

// Add a request interceptor axios.interceptors.request.use(function (config) { // Do something before request is sent return config;
  }, function (error) { // Do something with request error return Promise.reject(error);
  }); // Add a response interceptor axios.interceptors.response.use(function (response) { // Do something with response data return response;
  }, function (error) { // Do something with response error return Promise.reject(error);
  });

If you may need to remove an interceptor later you can.

var myInterceptor = axios.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/}); axios.interceptors.request.eject(myInterceptor);

You can add interceptors to a custom instance of axios.

var instance = axios.create(); instance.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});

Handling Errors

axios.get('/user/12345')
  .catch(function (error) { if (error.response) { // The request was made and the server responded with a status code // that falls out of the range of 2xx console.log(error.response.data); console.log(error.response.status); console.log(error.response.headers);
    } else if (error.request) { // The request was made but no response was received // `error.request` is an instance of XMLHttpRequest in the browser and an instance of // http.ClientRequest in node.js console.log(error.request);
    } else { // Something happened in setting up the request that triggered an Error console.log('Error', error.message);
    } console.log(error.config);
  });

You can define a custom HTTP status code error range using the validateStatus config option.

axios.get('/user/12345', { validateStatus: function (status) { return status < 500; // Reject only if the status code is greater than or equal to 500 }
})

Cancellation

You can cancel a request using a cancel token.

The axios cancel token API is based on the withdrawn cancelable promises proposal.

You can create a cancel token using the CancelToken.source factory as shown below:

var CancelToken = axios.CancelToken; var source = CancelToken.source(); axios.get('/user/12345', {
  cancelToken: source.token }).catch(function(thrown) { if (axios.isCancel(thrown)) { console.log('Request canceled', thrown.message);
  } else { // handle error }
}); // cancel the request (the message parameter is optional) source.cancel('Operation canceled by the user.');

You can also create a cancel token by passing an executor function to the CancelToken constructor:

var CancelToken = axios.CancelToken; var cancel; axios.get('/user/12345', {
  cancelToken: new CancelToken(function executor(c) { // An executor function receives a cancel function as a parameter cancel = c;
  })
}); // cancel the request cancel();

Note: you can cancel several requests with the same cancel token.

Using application/x-www-form-urlencoded format

By default, axios serializes JavaScript objects to JSON. To send data in the application/x-www-form-urlencoded format instead, you can use one of the following options.

Browser

In a browser, you can use the URLSearchParams API as follows:

var params = new URLSearchParams(); params.append('param1', 'value1'); params.append('param2', 'value2'); axios.post('/foo', params);

Note that URLSearchParams is not supported by all browsers, but there is a polyfill available (make sure to polyfill the global environment).

Alternatively, you can encode data using the qs library:

var qs = require('qs'); axios.post('/foo', qs.stringify({ 'bar': 123 }));

Node.js

In node.js, you can use the querystring module as follows:

var querystring = require('querystring'); axios.post('http://something.com/', querystring.stringify({ foo: 'bar' }));

You can also use the qs library.

Semver

Until axios reaches a 1.0 release, breaking changes will be released with a new minor version. For example 0.5.1, and 0.5.4 will have the same API, but 0.6.0 will have breaking changes.

Promises

axios depends on a native ES6 Promise implementation to be supported. If your environment doesn't support ES6 Promises, you can polyfill.

TypeScript

axios includes TypeScript definitions.

import axios from 'axios'; axios.get('/user?ID=12345');

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